Phospholipids (PLs) are important biologically active substances in the human body and the storage form of information molecule precursors. Its hydrolyzed and oxidized products regulate human metabolism and improve memory by affecting the secretion system or the nervous system. It is also a chemical medium for the formation of many diseases. In addition, many diseases are related to abnormal PL metabolisms, such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and pancreatic cancer. CD BioGlyco provides PL analysis services by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which has the characteristics of fast analysis speed and high resolution.
PLs refer to lipids containing phosphoric acid. PL molecules often exist in a combined state with proteins, cholesterol, glycolipids, and other substances, and are widely distributed in animal and plant tissues and microorganisms. They are the basic components of the biological membrane. PLs are amphiphilic molecules, which contain both a hydrophobic tail composed of fatty acid (FA) chains and a hydrophilic head composed of substituent groups linked to phosphoric acid. According to the main chain structure of the PLs, it is divided into phosphoglycerides and sphingomyelin.
Fig.1 The most common structures of PLs. (Lordan, 2017)
PLs not only maintain the normal morphology of cell membranes but also participate in a large number of life activities of organisms. PLs play an important role in signal transduction, material exchange, cell apoptosis, and proliferation. PLs have good emulsifying, wetting, and dispersing effects, and are widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics, and other industries. PLs, as a food additive, improve the stability of food during processing. Refined PLs are added to cosmetics to improve skin condition and smooth damaged hair. The addition of PLs to livestock or aquafeeds promotes their growth. PLs are also commonly used materials in injection emulsions, which prepare drug complexes and improve the availability of drugs.
Fig.2 Cellular functions of glycerophospholipid remodeling and diversity. (Hishikawa, 2014)
There are many unsaturated bonds in PLs of biological samples, which are easily decomposed by heat and are easily oxidized in the air. Therefore, HPLC is the most suitable chromatographic method for separating PLs. At CD BioGlyco, the PL analysis services we provide include:
The extraction of PL from biological samples generally adopts multi-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods. In the LLE method to extract PLs, we use the Bligh-Dyer method and the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) method. SPE is a good way to enrich PLs. The organic solvents used include methanol, chloroform, and hexane, which are suitable for the extraction of small amounts of PLs.
HPLC has a fast separation speed, high resolution, and analysis of non-volatile substances. Our methods include:
As a recognized expert in the field of Lipid Analysis, CD BioGlyco has developed a complete PL analysis workflow and performed many PL analysis projects. If you have any needs in this regard, please feel free to contact us.