Xylose and arabinose are the second most abundant sugars found in plant biomass after glucose. They are found in large amounts in agricultural wastes such as rice straw. Efforts are being made to utilize arabinose in plant biomass to produce chemicals and biofuels. The arabinose metabolic pathway is divided into the fungal oxidoreductase pathway and the bacterial isomerase pathway. These two pathways convert arabinose into D-xylulose-5-phosphate through different enzymes. In fungi, L-arabinose is converted into D-xylulose through two reduction and two oxidation reactions and is then phosphorylated to D-xylulose-5-phosphate by D-xylulokinase (XK). In bacteria, only three enzymes are needed to convert L-arabinose into D-xylulose-5-phosphate, and the process does not involve cofactors.
Fig.1 Arabinose metabolic pathways in fungi and bacteria. (Ye, et al., 2019)
CD BioGlyco provides targeted metabolic analysis services of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides, and Polysaccharides through various technical means such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). We use standards of different concentrations, plot the concentration of the standard as the abscissa and the peak area of the standard as the ordinate. Obtain the mathematical relationship between the target compound and its peak area, and then calculate its concentration based on the peak area of the corresponding compound in the sample to achieve absolute quantification of the target metabolite.
We have developed a targeted metabolism analysis package of monosaccharides, which contains 13 substances. The entire testing process includes six processes: sample collection, crushing, sample pre-processing, analysis, data processing, and project report. After receiving the samples, we will promptly check the number of samples and store them under the most appropriate conditions according to the nature of the samples to prevent the samples from deteriorating. To ensure the accuracy and uniformity of sampling, we use a ball mill to crush the sample before weighing it. This is followed by extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the sample pretreatment is completed, according to the properties of the target compound, an ion exchange chromatography column is selected for separation, and an electrochemical detector is used for measurement. During the testing process, we will design quality control (QC) samples or repeat experiments based on the customer's sample quantity to ensure the reliability of the data. After the test is completed, we analyze the data and issue a professional project report.
Tab.1 Standard list of monosaccharide packages.
Arabinose is a monosaccharide. We use the monosaccharide analysis package to achieve absolute quantification of arabinose in samples. For substances that are not included in the monosaccharide analysis package, we develop responsive detection methods based on client needs.
Fig.2 Applications of arabinose analysis. (CD BioGlyco)
CD BioGlyco has developed a fast and simple arabinose analysis method, which is suitable for the quantitative analysis of arabinose in various types of samples such as biomass, plants, and health products. If you are interested in our arabinose analysis services, please feel free to contact us for more details.