GlcNAc Analogs-based Sialic Acid Glycoengineering

GlcNAc Analogs-based Sialic Acid Glycoengineering

CD BioGlyco offers a full range of custom glycoengineering services to meet our customer's every special requirement. We have provided thousands of clients with high-quality custom sialic acid glycoengineering services. Our service will assist global clients to attain their goals in the shortest timeline.

Biochemistry and Biology of GlcNAc

Sialic acid glycoengineering is increasingly applied in the field of glycoscience and beyond. Chemically modified analogs of N-acetylmannosamine, the biological precursor of sialic acid, or sialic acid analogs can be introduced into the metabolic sialic acid biosynthesis pathway resulting in their incorporation into sialoglycans.

N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) plays important structural roles at the surface of a wide range of cells from bacteria to humans. It is a component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and also glycosaminoglycans and other polymers on the surface of animal cells. Animal cells and plants also use GlcNAc for cell signaling but do so in a different manner. In these multicellular organisms, intracellular levels of UDP-GlcNAc are used as sensors of nutritional status that result in protein modification by attachment of O-GlcNAc. Global O-GlcNAc modification of proteins has also been shown to be elevated when cells are subjected to a variety of cellular injuries including heat stress, oxidative stress, hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion, and trauma hemorrhage and additionally in several different types of cancers. Finally, several lines of evidence point toward O-GlcNAc playing a key role in neuronal function and neurodegeneration. For example, O-GlcNAc is enriched at synapses, and mice with neuron-specific deletion of OGT display locomotor defects before neonatal death. In addition, components of proteinaceous aggregates found in neurodegenerative diseases, including the microtubuleassociated protein tau and α-synuclein, are modified with O-GlcNAc, and reduced levels of O-GlcNAc have been observed in Alzheimer's disease.

Monosaccharide chemical reports have several possible metabolic fates.Fig.1 Monosaccharide chemical reports have several possible metabolic fates. (Zaro, et al., 2011)

GlcNAc Analog-based Sialic Acid Glycoengineering Services

CD BioGlyco is proficient at multi-step chemical or enzymatic synthesis and analysis techniques for glycoproteins with different sialic acids. Services we provide include but are not limited to:

  • Production of glycoproteins with different sialic acids according to customer requirements.
  • Sample pretreatment using biorthogonal reaction to fluorophores, intracellular esterase deacetylation, and other methods.
  • Chemical modification of cell surface glycans at the N-acyl position.
  • Using in-gel fluorescence scanning, flow cytometry, or matrix-assisted laser desorption analysis the incorporation efficiency of a variety of glycoproteins at GlcNAc analog-based sialic acid.
  • Using radioactivity, mass spectrometry, or HPLC for quantitative analysis of the sialic acids on the modified cell surface, such as Ac4GlcNAc, Bu4GlcNAc, Ac4GlcNLev, Ac4GlcNAz.

Advantages of Us

  • Outstanding scientists specialize in glycoengineering
  • Consistently produce glycoproteins with different sialic acids on demand
  • Ensuring the amount and purity of glycoprotein delivered
  • High stability and consistency of experimental results
  • Tailored research and services

Based on a variety of strategies, CD BioGlyco is confident to offer the best glycoengineering services for clients all over the world. There is no doubt that our services will promote the success of your project in a shorter time. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more detailed information.


  1. Zaro, B.W.; et al. Chemical reporters for fluorescent detection and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins reveal glycosylation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011, 108(20): 8146-8151.
  2. Luchansky, S.J.; et al. Expanding the diversity of unnatural cell-surface sialic acids. ChemBioChem. 2004, 5(3): 371-374.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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