Protein glycosylation is a complex post-translational modification (PTM) that involves the attachment of glycans at specific sites in proteins, most commonly at Asn (N-linked) or Ser / Thr (O-linked) residues. Protein glycosylation will be affected by the host cell type and culture conditions (such as culture medium, pH, temperature, etc.), so glycoproteins produced by living cell systems usually contain macro- and micro-heterogeneity in glycosylation patterns. Macro-heterogeneity refers to the variability of glycosylation sites and the number of glycans, while micro-heterogeneity refers to the variability of the glycan structure at a specific site. Both macro- and micro-heterogeneity increase the diversity of glycoforms.
Many biopharmaceuticals are glycoproteins produced by living cell systems, including monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and other recombinant protein products (such as fusion proteins, cytokines, growth factors, therapeutic enzymes, etc.). Proper glycosylation of therapeutic proteins is essential for product solubility, stability, biological activity and safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Comprehensive analysis of glycan is still a challenge. In the development of therapeutic glycoproteins (especially biosimilars), glycan analysis usually involves multiple methods to systematically evaluate them, including high-efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), mass spectrometry (MS), isoelectric focusing (IEF), etc.
Fig 1. Biosynthetic pathway of glycoproteins (Nishimura, S.I. 2011)
CD BioGlyco has a variety of powerful tools for high-throughput analysis of N-glycans and can provide customers with a wide range of high-precision analysis services.
CD BioGlyco has extensive experience in glycan profiling. We have advanced instruments to process samples, and rigorous scientists to analyze data and draw conclusions. We hope to start the exploration of glycobiology with you.
Customers can contact our employees directly and we will respond promptly. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more detailed information.