Glycophage Display-based Biomarker Development Service

Glycophage Display-based Biomarker Development Service

Glycophage Display-based Biomarker Development Service at CD BioGlyco

CD BioGlyco utilizes Glycophage Display Technology to efficiently explore biomarkers for various diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, thereby contributing to the elucidation of molecular pathogenesis and target identification in this field. With our cutting-edge capabilities, we excel in the identification and development of biomarkers associated with a wide range of diseases. Through rigorous research and meticulous analysis of these biomarkers, we are committed to advancing our understanding and paving the way for groundbreaking discoveries in diagnostic and therapeutic development research. The identification of these biomarkers offers valuable insights to researchers, aiding in the understanding of disease mechanisms, and prognosis assessment, and guiding future drug development and innovative treatment approaches.

Fig.1 Schematic presentation of phage display systems. (Bazan, et al., 2012)Fig.1 Schematic presentation of phage display systems. (Bazan, et al., 2012)

In certain instances, particularly in autoimmune diseases, there are situations where the antigens responsible for triggering the immune response are unknown. We have constructed a diverse library of glycoproteins that may serve as a valuable source for identifying potential antigens as biomarkers. By utilizing deep analyzing in conjunction with an M13 glycophage-displayed glycoprotein library, we pinpoint proteins or peptides that could be biomarkers. Our glycophage display technique is not only suitable for in vitro experiments but can also be applied in in vivo studies using animal models to search for biomarkers.

  • In vitro glycophage display-based biomarker development
    • Firstly, we have constructed glycophage display systems, based on N-linked Glycoprotein and O-linked Glycoprotein by using M13 bacteriophage. The physical linkage of glycans' phenotypic display with most gene that encodes components of the biosynthetic pathway can be achieved by placing the gene of interest onto the phagemid. This allows the generated glycan libraries to be used in screening assays to identify potential biomarkers or for other functional assays and study the complex network between glycans and their binding partners.
    • To identify glycophages specifically targeting the sample, we conduct subtractive panning using our glycoprotein-based glycophage display systems. We proceed with the handling of the sample, such as serum, which is followed by their co-incubation with our glycophages. To elute the bound phages, we add the eluate to the well and determine the titer, and amplify the glycophages. For further enrichment, we perform two more rounds of panning and amplification.
    • After obtaining the final eluate, we carefully select specific glycophages for further analysis by employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). That enables us to help clients identify and characterize novel biomarkers.
  • In vivo glycophage display-based biomarker development

Although glycophage display is commonly used for in vitro applications, our innovative methodology has the potential to extend its applications to in vivo discovery efforts utilizing animal models. We have multiple animal models of various diseases that allow us to study the biomarkers associated with different conditions.

  • We intravenously inject the glycophages we construct into animals expressing the disease model of interest.
  • After a certain period, we sacrifice the animals and extract the bound glycophage from their blood or target tissues.
  • To amplify the bound glycophage, we use Escherichia coli and subsequently purify them for further screening rounds in a subsequent cohort of animals.
  • Finally, we analyze the bound glycophages to develop biomarkers.

We harness the power of this technology to delve into the vast landscape of biomarkers for companion diagnostics, expanding our understanding and unlocking new possibilities in personalized medicine. In addition to antigen-based markers and antibody-based markers, we identify other biomarkers, including, hormones, and enzymes, which have been utilized as markers for the past 30 years. On the whole, we leverage our glycophage display technique to delve into the intricate network of biomarkers associated with a wide range of diseases, including but not limited to what is shown in Fig.2.

Fig.2 We assist in the research of biomarkers for these diseases. (CD BioGlyco)Fig.2 We assist in the research of biomarkers for these diseases. (CD BioGlyco)

Therefore, glycophage display research not only provides an effective tool for studying biomarkers in vitro, but also allows for investigations in vivo, laying the foundation for biomarker screening, validation, and characterization.

Publication Data

Technology: Phage display technologies

Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics

IF: 7.381

Published: 2019

Results: In this study, the researchers aimed to discover and validate serum autoantibodies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using an independent cohort of 306 participants, including healthy individuals, SLE patients, and other autoimmune-related diseases. They employed the phage display technique and deep sequencing to screen for specific autoantibodies in serum samples obtained from 50 SLE patients and 50 healthy controls, using a random peptide library. A statistical analysis protocol was established to identify potential biomarkers among the screened peptides. To validate the findings, 10 peptides were further analyzed using ELISA. The results revealed four peptides with high diagnostic efficacy in distinguishing SLE patients from healthy controls. Among these, SLE2018Val001 and SLE2018Val002 demonstrated consistency when differentiating SLE from other autoimmune diseases. This established procedure could be readily applicable for discovering autoantibody biomarkers in various other diseases.


  • Our strategy for discovering biomarkers applies to a wide range of diseases, making it easy to apply to other medical research. There is the potential to identify a large number of biomarkers for various diseases.
  • The technique can be used to generate antibodies that target cancer-specific antigens or immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer.
  • Our method can be used to develop highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting disease-specific biomarkers.


  • By adopting our approach, we explore the interactions between glycophages and host systems in a more natural, complex setting, which may lead to the identification of novel targets for diagnostic, therapeutic, or biomedical research purposes.
  • Our methodology has the flexibility to be adapted for a range of research contexts and may prove to be a valuable tool in advancing the field of phage display beyond its current limitations.
  • Our technology offers distinct advantages, including high specificity and affinity for discovered antigen-binding motifs. As a result, our technology expedites the identification of proteins that hold potential as biomarkers.
  • Our strategy is anticipated to assist in identifying numerous therapeutic targets and biomarker proteins, thereby paving the way for the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

CD BioGlyco is a leading glycobiology company possessing the advanced Glycan Display Platform. Our cutting-edge technology allows for the rapid and efficient screening of potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets. Powered by advanced biotechnology and analytical platforms, our scientific expertise and specialized research team enable us to support drug development and research for a wide range of global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. If you have any requirements in the field of glycobiology, please contact us. We look forward to providing you with fast, accurate, and high-quality services.


  1. Bazan, J.; et al. Phage display—a powerful technique for immunotherapy: 1. introduction and potential of therapeutic applications. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2012, 8(12): 1817-1828.
  2. Wu, F.L.; et al. Identification of serum biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus using a library of phage-displayed random peptides and deep sequencing. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 2019, 18(9): 1851-1863.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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