As a forward-looking company as well as a leading customer service provider, CD BioGlyco has successfully developed several powerful systems to provide the largest and most diverse portfolio of sialic acid glycoengineering services. We are glad to work with you on your glycoengineering project to help you get milestone success.
Sialic acid glycoengineering is increasingly applied in the field of glycoscience and beyond. Chemically modified analogs of N-acetylmannosamine, the biological precursor of sialic acid, or sialic acid analogs can be introduced into the metabolic sialic acid biosynthesis pathway resulting in their incorporation into sialoglycans.
As a consequence of its terminal position, the negatively charged N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is closely associated with intermolecular and intercellular interactions. Neu5Ac is required at an early stage during mammalian development, During the specific immune response, highly sialylated antibodies display a reduced affinity for cellular Fc receptors. Accordingly, Neu5Ac regulates the antibody activity in vivo, thus reducing inflammatory reactions. In several autoimmune diseases, antibodies frequently lack Neu5Ac and Gal. Furthermore, Neu5Ac is important for cell-virus interactions, notably for influenza A and C, polyoma, adenoma, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Several bacterial species express carbohydrate-specific adhesins that mediate the attachment of Neu5Ac to endothelial cells, including Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus spp., and E. coli. Parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi use their trans-sialidase to recognize Neu5Ac on host cells and subsequently transfer the sialyl moiety to their cell surface, thus protecting them against immunological recognition by the host organism.
Neu5Ac are efficiently taken up by cells, providing a viable surface display of non-natural sialosides. Many of these analogs are modified at the N-acyl position, with the same functional groups found at the N-acyl position of ManNAc analogs. Consequently, the accessibility of the 9-position of Neu5Ac analogs without compromising metabolic efficiency positions sialic acid analogs as superior reagents for modulating activities influenced the C9-OH group, such as Siglec binding. More often, the use of sialic acid analogs is preferred or necessary, including certainorganisms such as bacteria whose sialic acid biosynthesis does not utilize ManNAc but relies on a direct source of sialic acid.
Fig.1 Models for GlcNAc induction of cell signaling. (Naseem, et al., 2012)
CD BioGlyco is proficient at multi-step chemical or enzymatic synthesis and analysis techniques for glycoproteins with different sialic acids. Services we provide include but are not limited to:
CD BioGlyco has developed a variety of reliable glycoengineering strategies to help researchers better investigate glycoengineering in depth. Our high-quality scientific services will greatly improve your research efficiency and accelerate research progress. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more detailed information.