Oxidized lipids refer to lipid metabolites that add oxygen to lipid molecules through enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. Oxidized lipid metabolites play a very important regulatory role in the life activities of organisms, and are closely related to the occurrence and development of many diseases. CD BioGlyco detects oxysterols, oxidized cholesterol esters, oxidized phospholipids and analyzes oxidation products in free fatty acids (FFA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrum (LC-MS).
Oxidized lipids refer to a series of oxidative metabolites produced by auto-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, etc.) or under the catalysis of specific enzymes. The oxidation of PUFA goes through the three main enzymatic processes of lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), and cytochrome P450s. These pathways are important to drug targets for many diseases. For aerobic organisms, oxidative metabolism usually produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). As an important part of cell membranes, PUFA-containing lipids are the main targets of these ROS, leading to lipid peroxidation (LPO) through free radical chain reactions. Many lipid oxidation products have biological activity and participate in a variety of biological processes in cells. For example, oxidized sterols and cholesterol esters are closely related to the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Oxidized phospholipids are also related to inflammation and immune response.
Fig.1 Three major enzymatic pathways to generate oxidized lipids from PUFAs. (Li, 2019)
Enzymatically produced oxylipins act as important signal molecules in an autocrine or paracrine manner by interacting with their respective receptors. They perform a wide range of biological functions, including inflammation, immune response, blood pressure control, blood clotting, and tumorigenesis. The non-enzymatic oxidation of lipids, including free PUFAs or esterification of different lipids by LPO, has been considered an important part of lipid metabolism in biology.
Fig.2 The mechanism by which oxidized lipids induce oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. (Hajri, 2018)
Oxidized lipids produce complex mixtures with different chemical structures and abundances, which pose a huge challenge to lipid oxidation analysis. Conventional methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), colorimetry or fluorescence measurement, have limited application in lipid oxidation analysis. Therefore, combining MS with LC has become an indispensable tool for studying lipid oxides. At CD BioGlyco, the services we provide for lipid oxidation analysis include but are not limited to:
As a leader in the field of Lipid Analysis, outstanding scientists at CD BioGlyco offer a first-class solution in oxidation analysis. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us.