Reducing End Derivation Service

Reducing End Derivation Service

Reducing end derivation plays an important role in the separation of glycans. CD BioGlyco has systematic detection platforms and powerful analysis software to provide customers with various derivation strategies for glycans analysis. We have the confidence to be your scientific assistant in glycobiology.


The majority of glycans are difficult to detect when analyzed by several techniques such as mass spectrometry (MS), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) because they lack chromophores. Therefore, the most common practice is derivation at the reducing end to detect compounds by UV absorption or fluorescence. The advantage of derivatization is that glycans can be detected at lower concentrations. Each derivatization procedure has its benefits and the final results are related to the sample complexity and target carbohydrate types.

The reaction of phenylhydrazine with other substituted hydrazine compounds (e.g., 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, danoylhydrazine, p-hydrazinobenzenesul acid, N, N-diphenylhydrazine) have been widely used to identify monosaccharides by various analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Derivatization with phenylhydrazine (PHN) is a simple labeling procedure and was applied for the detection of oligosaccharides by ESI- and MALDI-MS with enhanced sensitivity and better rention and separation. In addition, reagents with hydrazine function were also used for MS detection of glycans.

Fig 1. Simple scheme illustrating the reaction of saccharides with substituted hydrazine derivatives to give corresponding hydrazone products.Fig.1 Simple scheme illustrating the reaction of saccharides with substituted hydrazine derivatives to give corresponding hydrazone products. (Lattová, 2013)

Derivation Strategies

Over the past decade, CD BioGlyco has continuously improved experimental techniques for identifying and quantifying glycan structures, and we used a variety of derivative reagents to increase the sensitivity in detection. The reduction of the free reducing end and the fluorescence labeling at the reducing end are effective methods and the most commonly used reducing end tags for glycan fluorescence detection including 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB), 2-amino benzoic acid(2-AA), procainamide, and 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic-acid (APTS). In addition, we provide pre-reduction of N-glycans ends during LC separation to avoid the presence of both closed-loop and open-loop during analysis.


  • Application in the assignment of new isomeric structures
  • Application in improving sensitivity
  • Application in improving labeling techniques for glycan analysis
  • Application in proteomic studies

Advantages of Us

  • A variety of effective strategies for customers to choose
  • Cost-effective derivation techniques
  • Professional research teams composed of outstanding experts
  • Detailed after-sales service

CD BioGlyco has made great progress in developing reducing end derivatization strategies. We provide rapid and sensitive detection techniques to complete the analysis of glycans isolated from complex biological samples. Our company aims to provide customers with valuable scientific assistance in glycomics. If you are interested in our services, please contact us for more detailed information.


  1. Lattová, E.; Perreault, H. The usefulness of hydrazine derivatives for mass spectrometric analysis of carbohydrates. Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 2013, 32(5):366-385.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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