Peptidoglycan-based Adjuvant Development

Peptidoglycan-based Adjuvant Development

Peptidoglycan (PGN) is used as an immunopotentiator for initiating immune response and has excellent adjuvant activity. Equipped with our advanced Glyco™ Vaccine Development Platform and professional scientists, CD BioGlyco provides custom adjuvant development of PGN from different bacterial sources. We are looking forward to being your indispensable assistant in PGN adjuvant development.

Properties of PGN

PGN is a polymer with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) as the basic skeleton, which is ubiquitous in bacteria. Recent reports have demonstrated that PGNs are recognized by distinct pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in eukaryotes and generate cascading immune responses. Therefore, PGN is regarded as an immunomodulator. PGN from Lactobacillus rhamnosus can mediate immune responses in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) by modulating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Moreover, PGN has adjuvant activity, which stimulates immune cells to increase cytokine expression and antibody-dependent specific responses when combined with vaccines.

Peptidoglycan-based Adjuvant Development

Immunomodulatory Pathways of PGN

PGN simulates humoral and cell-mediated immunity and enhances the body's antibody levels. In humoral immune regulation, PGN regulates the development of Th2 cells by monitoring the expression levels of specific antibodies and cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18. For example, PGN from Staphylococcus aureus can induce IL-4 production from murine spleen cells. Moreover, PGN regulates cellular immunity by activating multiple signaling pathways or secreting cytokines to induce Th1 cell development. For example, intraperitoneal injection study of PGN from Lactobacillus into Balb/C mice has shown that TLR-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways are highly activated and induced Th1-dominated immune responses.

Immunomodulatory pathways of PGN.Fig.1 Immunomodulatory pathways of PGN. (Sun, 2022)

Peptidoglycan-based Adjuvant Development Services

PGN shows potential immunogenic and adjuvant activity, stimulating immune cells to enhance antibody-dependent specificity levels. CD BioGlyco provides custom peptidoglycan-based adjuvant development services for our global customers. Our services include but are not limited to:

  • PGN adjuvant development from Mycobacterium

Mycobacterium PGN enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA).

  • PGN adjuvant development from S. aureus

S. aureus PGN protected mice against increased lethal doses of S. aureus challenge.

  • PGN adjuvant development from Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens

C. pyruviciproducens PGN resisted bloodstream infection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).

  • PGN adjuvant development from Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus PGN mediated activation of cellular pathways and induces Th1 immune responses.

CD BioGlyco is a leader in Carbohydrate-Based Adjuvant Development, providing our customers with cost-effective, high-quality, and hassle-free adjuvant. If you are interested in our services, please contact us directly.


  1. Sun, Q.; et al. Peptidoglycan-based immunomodulation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2022, 106:981-993.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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