Carbohydrates as adjuvants not only play an important role in the immune system, but also have good safety and tolerance, and are easily metabolized and eliminated from the body. Various natural carbohydrates such as monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and the saponin natural product QS-21 have been licensed for use in human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes zoster, and malaria vaccines. Mannan is a polymer produced by plants and fungi and can be used as an adjuvant in natural or oxidized form. CD BioGlyco provides complete cost-effective solutions for mannans-based adjuvant development.
Mannans are linear polymers of (1→4) linked mannose residues that enhance antigen presentation and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent dendritic cell (DCs) maturation. Mannan adjuvant function depends on binding to macrophages, DCs surface mannose-binding lectin, and other C-type lectins of the mannose receptor family, thereby activating complement, exerting opsonization and phagocytosis. Furthermore, mannan activates the inflammasome, produces IL-1 and activates caspase 1. Natural, oxidized, and reduced forms of mannans have been used as vaccine adjuvants to enhance antigen uptake and presentation.
Fig.1 Carbohydrate-based adjuvants. (Garcia-Vello, 2020)
In vitro, native, oxidized, and reduced forms of mannan derivatives stimulated mouse DCs to enhance allogeneic T cell proliferation, peptide-specific T cell responses, and TNF-α and IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production. In mice, antigens are coupled to native and reduced forms of mannan to produce IL-4 to stimulate Th2-type responses. However, antigens are conjugated to oxidized forms of mannan to produce IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12, thereby stimulating Th1-type responses. In addition, mannan has also been used to better target and enhance the immunogenicity of antigen-containing liposomes.
Mannans have been used as vaccine adjuvants to target antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), enhancing the body's humoral and cellular immunity. CD BioGlyco provides customers with adjuvant development services based on native, oxidized, and reduced mannans. The development services we provide include but are not limited to:
CD BioGlyco has accumulated many experiences in adjuvant development. We provide adjuvant development services based on mannan and its derivatives. Meanwhile, we provide customized solutions according to your needs. If you have a mannan-based adjuvant development project, please contact us directly. We are looking forward to being your indispensable assistant in mannans-base adjuvant development.