Galactose is a monosaccharide that plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Based on our comprehensive carbohydrate metabolism analysis solutions, CD BioGlyco provides galactose analytical services in food, plant, and other samples.
Galactose is a monosaccharide found mainly in sugar beets and milk. In 1856, galactose was first isolated from milk by French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur. In nature, galactose often exists in the D configuration and is the constituent unit of larger molecules such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. Galactose combines with glucose by condensation reaction to form the disaccharide lactose, which is present in most animal milk and is the main source of energy for infants. And under the action of lactase and β-galactosidase, lactose can also be hydrolyzed into glucose and galactose. For example, lactose in milk is broken down by the body into glucose and galactose for absorption.
Fig.1 Galactose structure. (Wikipedia)
In aqueous solution, galactose exists mainly in the form of α-pyranose and β-pyranose. After release from lactose, galactose is in its beta conformation. Then β-galactose is converted to α-galactose by galactose mutarotase (GALM). Next, α-galactose enters the Leloir pathway: 1) α-galactose is converted to galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-1-P) under the action of galactose kinase (GALK); 2) Gal-1-P and uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc) forms glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) and UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) under the action of Gal-1-P uridylyltransferase (GALT); 3) UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal. As sugar donors for glycosylation reactions, UDP-gal and UDP-Glc are very important for the production of glycoconjugates.
Fig.2 Galactose metabolic pathway. (Coelho, 2015)
Galactose is ubiquitous in organisms and plays a variety of functions, participating in carbohydrate metabolism. Based on our comprehensive Carbohydrate Metabolism Analysis solutions, we provide galactose analysis services in food, plants, microorganisms, extracts, and other samples. Not only can we determine galactose content in a variety of samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We can also provide accurate and reliable galactose analysis services by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD).
CD BioGlyco has been committed to carbohydrate metabolism research for many years and has accumulated rich experience. We provide accurate, reliable, and reproducible galactose analysis services for our global customers. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us, we are looking forward to being your research assistant in the field of carbohydrate metabolism analysis.