CD BioGlyco has established advanced technology platforms and introduced numerous professional researchers to ensure that we can provide customers with high-quality, high-precision HMOs separation and profiling services. We have confidence to be your essential research assistant in the field of glycobiology.
Human milk is considered the optimal food for newborn and developing infants, it provides necessary nutrition and plays an important role in preventing diseases, anti-adhesion, immune regulation, providing beneficial microorganisms and improving the beneficial intestinal flora. Analyze the characteristics of HMO, understand the relationship between HMO structure and function and further explore the role of HMO in infant growth and development are of great importance for further exploring the role of HMO in infant growth and development as well as for the better design of novel therapeutic agents with anti-infective properties and better artificial nutrition derivatives.
Figure 1. Structural diversity of human milk oligosaccharides (Porfirio, S.; et al. 2020)
Because HMOs are a type of mixed oligosaccharides, it is a complex mixture composed of very polar molecules, containing multiple structural isomers, usually highly branched and no intrinsic chromophore. Therefore, the complexity of the natural structure and unique chemical properties of human milk oligosaccharides make the separation and quantitative detection still a difficult challenge. In addition, the profiling of HMO also depends on the sensitivity, reproducibility, high throughput and speed of equipment and technology. Although extremely challenging, there is still a great need for large-scale and more in-depth characterization of HMO. Over the years, a variety of analytical techniques have been used to characterize and quantify HMO, including MS, NMR, HPLC, and CE, etc.
Figure 2. Representative MALDI-TOF-MS spectrum of permethylated human milk oligosaccharides (Porfirio, S.; et al. 2020)
Direct HPLC-UV has become one of the first detection methods for oligosaccharide analysis, the disadvantage of this method is related to the lack of chromophore or fluorophore in HMO. For the analysis of underivatized oligosaccharides and relative separation of several isomers, HPAEC with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) can be used. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography HPLC (HILIC) has been used for HMO analysis after their tag with fluorescence molecules.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has the characteristics of high sensitivity, rapidity, accuracy, high throughput, etc., and does not require the sample to be desalted. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has a wide measurement range, it can give information about linking sequence and linkage configuration of oligosaccharides, so it is often used in combined with chromatography.
NMR plays an important role in solving the glycosidic bond configuration, the residues numbers, the connection, and the linkage sequence between saccharide units of sugar compounds. NMR does not require standards for qualitative analysis but requires high purity of samples, and the samples must be above the milligram level.
CD BioGlyco provides customers with high-precision, one-stop, cost-effective HMOs profiling service. Our years of experience and expertise have won us praise from customers all over the world.
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