Aberrant sialylation in ovarian cancers is very common. CD BioGlyco has rich experience in sialic acid analysis to provide customers with worry-free sialic acid analysis services in ovarian cancer. We have the confidence to be your essential research assistant in the field of glycobiology.
Gynecological cancers are in the top 10 of the most common cancers in women. Among them, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate. Ovarian cancer is commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage due to a lack of proper screening tools allowing early detection. Ovarian carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, form in or on an ovary.
Aberrant sialylation is very common in various kinds of cancers, not only involving the tumor genesis but also contributing to tumor growth, dissemination, and refractory to therapy. Elevated levels of sialic acid in serum and tissue and high levels of sialylated antigens in most patients with gynecological cancers show the potential of sialic acid for diagnosis. For example, the scientists found that epithelial ovarian cancer cell-secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a shorter half of life (a faster clearance rate) than the normal placenta-secreting hCG does, and further determined this difference was secondary to different sialylation of this glycoprotein, leading to the different biological half of life.
It is reported that the serum carbohydrate structure of α-1-proteinase inhibitors in ovarian cancer patients is altered with a decreased branching (more biantennary chains), increased α2,6-sialic acid linkage, and decreased α2,3-sialic acid linkage compared with healthy women. In contrast, ovarian cancer patients' serum haptoglobin is not only increased but also exhibited different sialylation, including an increased branching (more tri-antennary chains), more branches ending in α2,3-sialic acid, and fewer branches ending in α2,6-sialic acid. The relative α2,3-linked sialylation increase with increasing antennary and cancer stage, reaching its maximum in tetra-antennary structures.
Fig.1 Hypersialylation in altered adhesion and invasion. (Dobie, 2021)
The characterization of sialic acid and cancer-specific sialylated glycoproteins using novel and several advanced techniques, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), MS, electrospray-MS, Liquid Chromatography (LC)-MS, lectin affinity chromatography (LAC)-MS, serial LAC-MS, multi-LAC-MS, affinity electrophoresis-MS, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE)-MS. Sialic acid content is determined by radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Fluoroimmunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, and miniaturized multiplexed nano-immunoassay.
A study on the utility of serum level of total sialic acid has indicated the importance of identifying cancer-specific markers, contributing to analyzing individual sialylated glycoprotein in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The increased sialylation on different glycoproteins could be further identified as special and/or common tumor-associated carbohydrate structures, such as Sialyl Lewis a Antigen, Sialyl Lewis x Antigen, and Sialyl Tn Antigen. The sialyl Lewis a and sialyl Lewis x antigens function as ligands for selectins (E-selectin in endothelial cells, P-selectin, and L-selectin), responsible for tumor-cell adhesion, migration, and metastases, and their increased sialylation increases the antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. These tumor-associated carbohydrate structures increase in patients with ovarian cancer, as a marker indicator of poor prognosis.
CD BioGlyco provides customers with comprehensive and reliable sialic acid analysis services in ovarian cancer. If you want to know more about the service, please feel free to contact us.