BC is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide characterized by a high risk of invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. The capricious outcomes of BC patients were contributed by the intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity at the genomic, transcriptional, and cellular levels. Glycosylation serves as a post-translational modification that relates to the enzymatic linkage of monosaccharides or whole oligosaccharides to specific amino acids within proteins. The glycosylation-related genes, including glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and nucleotide sugar synthesis and transporter genes, are named glycogenes. Tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis involve aberrant glycosylation and play an important role, which acting as a potential cancer hallmark. It is thus intriguing and important to identify the glycogene-type or glycosyltransferases as the biomarkers for molecular stratification in BC.
Fig.1 Identification of glycogene-based subtypes. (Dalangood, et al., 2020)
Currently, BC still exists the problem encompasses significant mortality, which is a great threat to human health. Hence, glycoprotein has been found overexpressed in more aggressive bladder tumors being widely adopted as a biomarker of BC stem cells.
Fig.2 Glycogene discovery methods in BC. (CD BioGlyco)
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