Sialylation changes in saliva have the potential to serve as a non-invasive tool for monitoring oral carcinogenesis. CD BioGlyco has developed Strategies for Sialic Acid Analysis that are used to analyze sialic acid in saliva. Welcome customers from all over the world to cooperate with us!
Head and neck tumors are the sixth most common malignancy on the planet, with approximately 500,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The mouth is the area where the most head and neck tumors occur, including the surface of the tongue, the inside of the cheeks, the mandibles, the lips, or the gums. The majority of oral cancer cases are classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Smoking, alcohol abuse, eating habits, and living habits are closely related to the occurrence of oral cancer. In addition, genetic susceptibility and chronic inflammation that occur in the oral cavity also play an important role in the development of oral cancer. According to statistics, up to 70% of oral cancers are caused by precancerous oral lesions, such as persistent red or white plaques in the mouth. Therefore, oral screening is an important part of oral cancer prevention.
Abnormal glycosylation is the main hallmark of cancer occurrence and development, mainly including abnormal sialylation and abnormal fucosylation. Abnormal sialylation is associated with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, etc. Studies have shown that abnormal sialylation may be associated with increased sialyltransferase activity, leading to overexpression of sialic acid on the surface of cancer cells. Excessive sialic acid on the surface of cancer cells promotes tumor invasion, metastasis, survival, and immune escape. Cell membrane sialylation also plays an important role in the development of oral cancer.
Fig.1 Roles of sialyltransferases in cancer. (Pietrobono, 2021)
A study has compared sialylation changes in salivary among controls, patients with oral precancerous conditions, and patients with oral cancer. In this study, total sialic acid levels, sialidase activity, sialyltransferase, and linkage-specific sialoprotein activity in saliva samples were determined by spectrophotometry, Sialic Acid-Specific Lectin, Sialic Acid Fluorometric Assay, etc. The results have shown that the total sialic acid/total protein ratio, sialidase activity, α-2,3 and α-2,6 sialyltransferase activities, and α2-3 salivary protein, compared with controls, gradually increased in saliva of patients with oral precancerous conditions and oral cancer. In patients with oral cancer metastases, total sialic acid/total protein ratio, sialidase activity, α-2,3 and α-2,6 sialyltransferase activities were higher. Therefore, sialylation changes in saliva have the potential to serve as a non-invasive tool for monitoring oral carcinogenesis.
To help researchers better analyze aberrant sialylation in cancers, CD BioGlyco has developed a complete set of Strategies for Sialic Acid Analysis. The strategies have been recognized by researchers from many countries. We provide high-quality sialic acid analysis service in oral cancer for our clients worldwide. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us.