Trehalose Glycolipid-based Adjuvant Development

Trehalose Glycolipid-based Adjuvant Development

Immune adjuvants occupy an increasingly important position in the development and production of vaccines. Researchers obtain some substances that increase the immune response of the body by nature or by artificially synthesizing, and making them into adjuvants. As a promising vaccine adjuvant, trehalose glycolipid (TGL) has been extensively studied in recent years. CD BioGlyco specializes in carbohydrate-based adjuvant development. We provide high-quality trehalose monoester glycolipids adjuvant and trehalose diester glycolipid adjuvant to our customers.


Trehalose is a kind of disaccharide widely existing in nature. It is an α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside formed by two glucoses through an α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond. It is attached via an ester group to a lipophilic chain that yields TGLs. In recent years, 6,6'-trehalose diesters in the TGL family have attracted much attention. Studies have demonstrated the role of trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Meanwhile, TDM and related glycolipids act as vaccine adjuvants when delivered in dimethyldioctadecyl bromide (DDA) liposome formulations.

Properties of TDM Adjuvant

T-cell adjuvant properties of mycobacterial cord factor TDM have been well characterized. Mincle, a C-type lectin on innate immune cells, was identified as a receptor for TDM and its analogs. TDM binds to the receptor Mincle and activates macrophage C-type lectin, thereby inducing the Syk-Card9-Bcl1-Malt1 signaling pathway and a strong Th1/Th17 immune response in vivo. The potent adjuvant activity of TDM induces proinflammatory cytokines and cellular immunity. Therefore, this sparked scientists' interest in developing synthetic Mincle ligands as novel adjuvants.

The effects of TGLs presentation on cytokine production by GM-CSF macrophages.Fig.1 The effects of TGLs presentation on cytokine production by GM-CSF macrophages. (Stocker, 2019)

Trehalose Glycolipid Adjuvant Development Service

CD BioGlyco provides custom trehalose glycolipid adjuvant development services, including trehalose monoester glycolipids and trehalose diester glycolipids. Trehalose monoester: trehalose 6-monomyristate (TMMyr), trehalose 6-monopalmitate (TMP), trehalose 6-monostearate (TMS), and trehalose 6-monoarachiate (TMA). Trehalose diester: trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), trehalose 6,6'-dimyristate (TDMyr), trehalose 6,6'-dipalmitate (TDP), trehalose 6, 6'-distearate (TDS), trehalose 6,6'-diarachidate (TDA), and TDM.

CD BioGlyco is a globally recognized leader in the development of carbohydrate-based adjuvants. We have developed the most advanced Glyco™ Vaccine Development Platform to guarantee your adjuvant development project. We are committed to providing our customers with the highest level of trehalose glycolipid-based adjuvants to accelerate your vaccine development. If you are interested in TGLs adjuvant, please contact us directly. We will provide highly customized solutions according to your needs.


  1. Stocker, B.L.; et al. The effects of trehalose glycolipid presentation on cytokine production by GM-CSF macrophages. Glycoconjugate Journal. 2019, 36(1):69-78.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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