GSL Structure Analysis Service

GSL Structure Analysis Service

CD BioGlyco has established an advanced analytics platform for GSLs structure analysis. Based on our clients' requirements, we can perform different methods and provides custom analysis services. Outstanding research scientists from our research team have extensive experience in glycochemistry research and can help and assist our clients with their research projects.

Different Types of GSL and Their Analysis Methods

Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), also known as glycosides of ceramide (Cer) or myo-inositol(1-O) phosphoryl(O-1) ceramide (InsPCer or IPC), are structurally and functionally varied sphingolipid subclass present in all eukaryotic species and certain bacteria. The basic common structure of GSLs is shown below.

Basic structure of GSLs. Fig.1 Basic structure of GSLs. (Del Poeta, et al., 2014)

GSLs are found in almost every kind of animal and plant cell membrane. Six series of GSLs coupled to ceramide with distinct core oligosaccharide structures have been defined, and five basic series and one hybrid type are shown in Fig.2.

Six basic series of GSLs. Fig.2 Six basic series of GSLs. (CD BioGlyco)

When combined with 1D NMR spectra, chemical shifts, and coupling constants in homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR spectra may be used to deduce the linkage and sequencing of sugar residues.

NMR analysis in polysaccharide structure. Fig.3 NMR analysis in polysaccharide structure. (Yao, et al., 2021)

MS is also widely employed in GSL structural analysis and glycosphingolipid omics. Although shotgun MS analysis for GSL profiling seems promising, ion suppression of low-abundance species and the high probability of isobaric overlaps frequently demand a liquid chromatographic (LC) separation step before MS detection.

MS is one of the most powerful tools for proteomics, lipidomics, and glycomics analyses. Fig.4 MS is one of the most powerful tools for proteomics, lipidomics, and glycomics analyses. (Bailey, et al., 2021)

GSL Structural Analysis Services at CD BioGlyco

CD BioGlyco provides clients with high-quality and sensitive GSL structural analysis services. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy is a common platform for GSLs profiling because it is non-destructive, identifiable, and reproducible, and the spectra display a lot of biochemical information. MS is used to solve a variety of analytical problems, such as identifying molecular weight and elemental content, as well as defining the structures of complex bio-organic molecules and evaluating polymers.

Advantages of Us

  • We offer custom structural analysis services for clients according to their requirements and budgets.
  • We provide custom solutions for our clients based on our test conditions and clients’ needs.
  • We employ outstanding lab operators to handle these analysis experiments.

CD BioGlyco provides NMR-based and MS-based GSL structural analysis services. 1D proton NMR data favor changes in more abundant metabolites, and 2D proton-proton investigations can lessen spectrum congestion and are mostly used for structural characterization. MS is sensitive and selective, with several uses. Please do not hesitate to contact us for more detailed information and any questions.


  1. Del Poeta, M.; et al. Synthesis and biological properties of fungal glucosylceramide. PLoS Pathogens. 2014, 10(1).
  2. Bailey, L.S.; et al. Characterization of glycosphingolipids and their diverse lipid forms through two-stage matching of LC-MS/MS spectra. Analytical Chemistry. 2021, 93(6): 3154–62.
  3. Hakomori, S. Structure and functional interaction of glycosphingolipids inducing signal transduction to affect cellular phenotype. Comprehensive Glycoscience. 2007, 267–288.
  4. Yao, H.; et al. A review of NMR analysis in polysaccharide structure and conformation: Progress, challenge, and perspective. Food Research International. 2021, 143: 11029.
This service is for Research Use Only, not intended for any clinical use.

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